in Human and Animal Health: Mechanisms and Prospects
It is becoming increasingly apparent that the many reported physiological effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are due to specific actions of, as well as interactions between, the two known biologically-active isomers: cis-9,trans-11 CLA and trans-10,cis-12 CLA. Examples include biological effects induced by the independent action of one of the isomers, synergistic interactions involving both isomers, and even apparent opposition between the isomers. The signaling pathways through which the CLA isomers induce these effects are still largely unknown, but the modulation of lipoxygenase signaling pathways appears to be involved. It also appears that at least some effects may be induced by the parent compound(s) themselves rather than CLA metabolite(s). These observations and conclusions will be considered in the context of optimizing the utilization of CLA to maintain and/or improve human and animal health.